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Ancient Jerusalem and the Scriptures
Of earliest record, Jerusalem is often identified with Salem, the city ruled by Melchizedek, which became one of only two Zion cities on record, the other being the City of Enoch. Archaeological evidence suggests the site of Jerusalem to have been occupied as early as the fourth millennium BC.
More concretely we know from scriptural record that Jerusalem was conquered by King David at around the 11th century BC. David's son, Solomon later built a temple in the city making the city a fixed center of Hebrew society.
Jerusalem then was the center of worship, and especially temple worship until conquered by Titus in 70 AD when the temple was destroyed and much of the city devastated.
Worship at Jerusalem had previously been interrupted at an earlier date (circa 586 BC) when the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem and took most of the city's inhabitants as captives to serve the Babylonian Empire. A few years before this time a small group, led by a prophet of God, left Jerusalem and traveled to the American continent. Their record is the Book of Mormon, and, for them, Jerusalem remained an important religious symbol.
The most important event in the history of the world, the atonement of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, occurred in and around Jerusalem, making it a site of very prominent importance indeed.
Since that time, it has, over the years, been the site of much conflict and religious strife.
Modern Jerusalem and its Destiny
The land of Israel and much of the surrounding land has been given, as a land of inheritance, to the descendants of Abraham. The return of the Jews to Israel has long been anticipated, especially among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. After the destruction of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, the stage was set for change in Israel. The creation of a homeland for the Jews was planned and eventually realized dramatically verifying prophecy that the Jews would return.
However, to this day, Jerusalem remains a point of contention. Being a city of great importance to Jew and Arab alike, the city's prophesied destiny as a holy city from which the world would receive communication from the Lord is yet to come. Before the city achieves this prophesied state of grandeur, it is also prophesied that conflict will escalate and climax in an event known as Armageddon when the armies of "the world" will gather against the city. In today's current political climate, such a battle seems not at all unlikely.