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Urim and Thummim
The Urim and Thummim, in Mormonism, refers to instruments used in receiving revelation and translating unknown tongues. Joseph Smith used a Urim and Thummim to translate The Golden Plates and receive revelations from the Lord. The term Urim and Thummim does not always refer to one specific instrument, and is many times the name given to different objects, but each accomplish the same purpose. The names in Hebrew mean "lights and perfections." The plural nature of both words had led some Biblical scholars to believe that Urim and Thummim refer to the process of divination rather than an object, but the use of the word in Mormonism is singular and indicates a device through which revelation is received.
Biblical references to the Urim and Thummim describe them as part of the ceremonial temple clothing attached to a breastplate. It was handed down through the generations starting with Aaron, but the Bible does not tell of their use in as much detail as Mormon Scripture. In the Book of Ether, two stones are given by the Lord for the purpose of translating the record made in an unknown language. This is the earliest mention of the Urim and Thummim chronologically, being at the time of the tower of Babel. The Book of Abraham tells of Abraham receiving a vision by means of the Urim and Thummim, although it would be a different device than the one Joseph Smith used. It is unknown whether the one used by Abraham was passed down to Aaron, but the Urim and Thummim of the Book of Mormon is the same one buried with The Golden Plates, which Joseph Smith used for translation. The Urim and Thummim of the Book of Mormon is again mentioned in the days of Mosiah, when he used them to translate the plates of Ether. It is here that the Urim and Thummim is defined as being 'interpreters.' The Book of Mormon also tells that only one who is a seer is able to use the Urim and Thummim (Mosiah 8:13). Hiram Page is an example in Mormon History of someone attempting to use Seer Stones without the permission of the Lord (Doctrine and Covenants 28:11-12).
When Joseph Smith was led to the place of The Golden Plates by the Angel Moroni, the Urim and Thummim was buried with them. Joseph described it as two stones set in a silver bow and fastened to a breastplate. In Mormonism when the Urim and Thummim is referred to, it usually means this specific object. However, there are several references in Mormon Scripture to other objects which are called a Urim and Thummim. Joseph Smith had a seer stone in addition to the device buried with the plates and used it for much of the translation of the Book of Mormon. This seer stone has also been called a Urim and Thummim in Mormon History. One of the revelations of Joseph Smith describes the dwelling place of God as a Urim and Thummim. That same revelation describes the earth as becoming a Urim and Thummim to all those who live upon it when it is sanctified after the Last Judgment, and a white stone (Revelation 2:17) will be given to the faithful which will function as a Urim and Thummim to each individual that receives it.
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